Any survivors of a celestial impact, from the fall of the Laurentide comet in North America to that of Burckle Crater off Madagascar wouls have been traumatized. There may have been periods where earth collided with ejected from the breakup of the massive comet Encke. Such phenomena may have given rise to notions of a terrifying and belief-changing War in Heaven, a titanic battle.
In the beginning was a large disintegrating comet. It fragmented in cascades producing a field of orbiting debris. This giant mother-comet is thought to have been fragmenting since the Paleolithic to as recently as 5,000 years ago. The presence of substreams in the Taurid Complex indicates that the progenitor comet also took the route of multiple disintegration,. Searches have revealed a number of NEOs associated with the substreams of the complex
The Upper Paleolithic represents both the phase during which anatomically modern humans appeared and the climax of hunter-gatherer cultures. Demographic expansion into new areas took place during this period. The diffusion of burial practices resulted in an unprecedented number of well-preserved human remains.
Various lines of evidence delineate the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) as a critical phase in the biological and cultural evolution of Upper Paleolithic populations.The LGM, a long phase of climatic deterioration culminating around 20,000 BP, had a profound impact on the environment, lifestyle, and survivor behavior of human groups.The comet that created the annual Taurid meteor shower was also responsible for snuffing out large mammals in North America 13,000 years ago.
Palaeolithic extinctions and the Taurid Complex 10900 bc
ntersection with the debris of a large (50–100 km) short-period comet during the Upper Palaeolithic provides a satisfactory explanation for the catastrophe of celestial origin which has been postulated to have occurred around 12 900 BP, and which presaged a return to ice age conditions of duration ∼1300 yr. The Taurid Complex appears to be the debris of this erstwhile comet; it includes at least 19 of the brightest near-Earth objects. Subkilometre bodies in meteor streams may present the greatest regional impact hazard on time-scales of human concern The sudden onset of the Younger Dryas cooling 12 900 yr ago was marked by intense wildfires over North America, major disruption of human culture, and the rapid extinction of 35 genera of North American mammals (Faith & Surovell 2009).
We show that at least 19 of the largest NEOs have orbits significantly close to that of Comet Encke. model the disintegration history of the progenitor comet. Encounters with dense swarms of material, sufficient to produce a 12.9 ka cosmic event, are indeed reasonable expectations of recent Earth history.
12,000 BCE The epoch described by geologists as the Pleistocene has ended. The Holocene epoch begins – to today. With the exception crossing a body of water to get to New Guinea and Australia, they have arrived in places by walking. 11,000 BCE Stone spearheads and human DNA found in Oregon caves will indicate "that at least two cultures with distinct technologies ... shared the continent more than 13,000 years ago." (New York Times, July 12, 2012.) 10,900 BCE Comet debris smash into North America. According to theory, it reversed the ice age thaw, and the recooling killed mammals such as the saber-toothed tiger, dire wolf, and the wooly mammoth. 10,000 BCEHomo sapiens are the sole surviving creatures of the Homo genus – a species with a superior ability to plan and communicate. These humans have spread into most of the earth's habitable places. Sparse populations allow for hunting game, gathering food that grows wild and drifting from campsite to campsite. Storytelling and myth are a major pastime. 10,000 BCE In Eurasia and North America, the woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) has become extinct. 10,000 BCE People in the Middle East have domesticated goats and dogs. And people are starting to grow their own food. 9,500 BCE Throughout the world, climates become warmer, wetter and more stable. There are perhaps five million people in the world, most of them hunter-gatherers. 9,000 BCE 21st century academics mark this as around the time that the shift from hunter-gathering societies to settled farming begins. In the Jordan Valley, figs are cultivated, while wild barley, oats and acorns are being gathered. (See BBC News, June 2, 2006, "Ancient fig clue to first farming.) The twelfth century BC is associated with the "Greek Dark Ages", the end of the Hittite civilisation in the Near East, the end of Bronze Age Israel, and the end of the Bronze Age Shang dynasty in China. Ancient Chinese history has the notion of "mandate from heaven", where the rulers were essentially subject to the whims of the sky above. Strange sights in the sky would not be seen as good news for Chinese Emperors. Indeed, around this time, Chinese records speak of : "...many gods and spirits were annihilated in this battle, and several stellar dignitaries were replaced by newcomers to the celestial domains." What could cause such global shocks? A likely answer, which has a good fit to the evidence, was what the European and Chinese observers described at the time as "dragons in the sky" - comets! We're not talking about an intact large comet (if that had hit in the last several millennia, we would not be here today), but rather fragments from a disintegrating comet or asteroid (small pieces like that which hit Tunguska in 1908). These would throw up dust that would envelope the world and dim our view of the Sun and skies.
The Taurids are related to comet Encke, as first shown by Fred Whipple, best known for proposing the "dirty snowball" model of comets. Mark Bailey, Victor Clube (brother of my rugby coach at school!), and Bill Napier put forward the theory that Encke and the Taurid meteors originated from a giant comet that fragmented some 40,000 years ago after entering the inner Solar System. The idea of a comet splitting up into smaller pieces is nothing new (witness Shoemaker-Levy 9 in 1994 and the return this year of the fragmented periodic comet Machholz 2), and indeed Dr. Brian Marsden of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory is the originator of the idea that the bulk of sungrazing comets we see come from a large comet that perhaps originally split a few centuries before Christ, and has split again - this family of comets is known as the Kreutz sungrazers.
"A large fraction of the objects on Earth-crossing orbits, of all dimensions, are the daughter products from the break-up of a giant comet some time during the past 100,000 years, dynamical studies suggesting around 20,000 years as likely. 3100 bc the Taurid Complex was producing phenomenal meteor storms between 4,500 and 5,000 years ago, accompanied by multiple Tunguska-class atmospheric detonations icked in abruptly, along with the end of the line for some 35 different mammal species, including the mammoth, as well as the so-called Clovis culture of prehistoric North Americans. Various theories have been proposed for the die-off, ranging from abrupt climate change to overhunting once humans were let loose on the wilds of North America. But now nanodiamonds found in the sediments from this time period point to an alternative: a massive explosion or explosions by a fragmentary comet, similar to but even larger than the Tunguska event of 1908 in Siberia.
Masse’s biggest idea is that some 5,000 years ago, a 3-mile-wide ball of rock and ice swung around the sun and smashed into the ocean off the coast of Madagascar. The ensuing cataclysm sent a series of 600-foot-high tsunamis crashing against the world’s coastlines and injected plumes of superheated water vapor and aerosol particulates into the atmosphere. Within hours, the infusion of heat and moisture blasted its way into jet streams and spawned superhurricanes that pummeled the other side of the planet. For about a week, material ejected into the atmosphere plunged the world into darkness. All told, up to 80 percent of the world’s population may have perished, making it the single most lethal event in history.
The effect of the primordial unconscious on consciousness continues down through the ages, as the backdrop or background of history.
Sun symbols are circles, swastikas, the flowers Shamash the sun-god As the god of the sun, Apollo was known as Phoebus, in order to distinguish him from the earlier sun-god, Hellios, the Titan son of Ouranos and Gaea, whose office of driving the horses and chariot of the sun was inherited by Apollo, just as Neptune inherited the watery kingdom of his uncle, Oceanos. Helios, (whose name is clearly derived from the Semitic El or "ha-El," "the god," just as Apollo is derived from "ha-Baal"), stood for the idea of God as a man in the sun of the spiritual world,
a sun god, in the myth of Marduk he is named as Marduk's father, whereupon Marduk is called “the son of the sun.” ubaid and Uruk periods, spans the 5th to ..... Etana had been sent by the sun god Utu to save the eagle from a pit, after which Etana succeeded and asked the eagle for the location of the ...
The divine twins [Gemini Taurus Aries Pisces precession] are often seen as the two personified world-pillars, the sun-gate, the world mountain divided into two .The Emesh appeared first in Mesopotamia around 5.000 B.C. Prior to their emergence they were preceded by the Ubaid migrants from what is now southern Romania, from Carpathia and Scythia, who had fled south to escape the Black Sea flood sometime around 5.500 B.C. The Black Sea was the region of the biblical flood, it being a fresh water lake before it was flooded by the Mediterranean and that is why today the Black Sea has a lower salinity level.Several key elements are to be found in the Emesh culture such as the Tree of Life, the horned cap worn by the Emesh nobility and also by priests, the flower-bracelet, the pine cone and the bag. The origin of these symbols is to be found in the Getic culture where the Tree of Life is represented by the fir tree (symbolizing eternity because it is forever green) which is not native to Mesopotamia. The flower of life is again a Getic symbol used on shields, weapons, traditional clothing, pottery, tombstones, buildings and wooden doors. The bull is also a Getic symbol found in the coat of arms of Moldova and can be traced all the way back to the Neolithic, being a totemic symbol used by the native European tribes and even the late Paleolithic where it depicts the Bull constellation / Pleiades. As for the bag, it can be found also in the Mayan civilization and it was discovered even at Göbekli Tepe. The descendants of this ancient kin were the Sacred Ubaid Race who later settled Mesopotamia and founded the Emesh religion around 5.000 B.C. Their Transylvanian ancestors were the Emesh Gods themselves, meaning the titans or the giants so beautifully spoken of in the Rumanian folklore and also highly spoken of by the ancient Greeks and by the whole ancient world for that matter. https://arcodabara.wordpress.com/tag/primordial/
First Nature We are capable of finding divinity within ourselves and nourishing it with Inner Fire -- akashic matter, cosmic electricity, chi, prana, qi -- the telesma which Hermes Trismegistus describes in his Emerald Tablet. By whatever name, it is always the same primordial Life Force, 'the most powerful force of all forces', as Hermes Trismegistus calls it. This force comes from the 'sun' (Tengri), which is the distributor and inexhaustible source. One of the manifestations of this force is love, which makes the worlds move. Behind the light of the sun are many other forces, and telesma is a force so potent that, as the Emerald Tablet puts it, ‘it overcomes every subtle thing and penetrates every solid substance.' The dragon work is to channel this telesma and condense it within your cells until a transformation takes place.” Hermes continues, “It is the cause, this, of all perfection of all things throughout the universe. This will attain the highest perfection of powers.”
he drama of human civilization is set against the cosmological backdrop of the Precession. Dragons are real and the basis of scientific priesthood and royal lineage. The sacred past is a story of sacred dragon or serpent worship. In prehistory, myth veiled astronomical fact. Animals in myth are stars, and gods are planets. Settlements developed as cosmological models mirroring the order of the heavens.
Civilization was originally rooted in prehistoric observations of the order of the stars. It tracked time and created calendars, and most importantly allowed predictions of eclipses rooted in the GREAT CYCLE of PRECESSION of the Zodiac, the serpentine ring of the Ecliptic, cycle of Eternal Return.
The Center of the Universe, the Pole Star, is the most important point in the Universe. The dimension of Heaven is Time, but the axis of heaven moveth not. Therefore, the Pole Star, the Hole in the Center, was the entrance to the Other Worlds. Ouroboros is the irresistible circle of time.
Megalithic temples were tuned to this Great Cycle drama in the heavens. They expressed the laws of the universe in the language of time.Time is framed in eternal forms, expressed only in self-explanatory universal cosmological myth.This knowledge meant participation in ultimate things through mythical awareness.The Center of the Universe is not fixed. It moves around in a circle counter the Circle of the Zodiac. Plato called Precession the Great Year, and each of its "months" is a sign of the Zodiac.
Myth was the technical astronomical scientific language of the ancestors -- coded celestial events. Decoding the sky meant connecting the dots of the starry constellations, making star maps, reproducing that heaven on earth in the form of sacred sites, and embodying it in sacred royal lineage. The most ancient lines are symbolically related to the circumpolar constellation Draco, the great Dragon or "crooked" Serpent (Babylonian Sir). The winged serpent was a symbol of the Gods of Egypt, Phoenicia, China, Persia, and Hindustan.
Roughly 3000 BC, the heavens revolved around the Great Dragon, and so did earthly civilization. Dragons became synonymous with immortality because the celestial dragon was exempt from the cycle of time, and because the dragon lineage did not die but was preserved in the noble bloodline. The point of circumpolar rotation, inhabited by the draconic star Thuban or not, became the "Eye of the Dragon". The stars were the witnesses or Watchers - the seers. Egyptian rulers wore the Uraeus serpent (Wadjet) as their crown symbol of sovereignty (serpent of life), a link to the celestial Ouroboros.
The further back we look into the tales of the gods -- to the Titans and The Primordials -- the further back in pre-history we must imagine them, even before the time of mankind itself -- or at least a conscious, symbolizing and literate mankind. We can presume they represent the conditions and effects on the unconscious. The Primordials are the deepest foundation of the unconscious reaching back beyond chaos into primordial Nothingness, which is still with us as the underlying groundstate or Ur-state of consciousness. In that context, Helios arises in the darkness as the Source of Light and Life.
Adam "existed" because he was remembered by his descendants. A world view is a set of presuppositions (or assumptions) which we hold (consciously or subconsciously) about the basic makeup of our world. Everyone has a world view, whether he can explain it or not. It can be likened to a pair of glasses through which one views the world. It is important to have the right prescription, or reality will be distorted. Modem man is faced with a supermarket of world views; all of them claim to represent reality, but they are points of view about reality -- mental constructs, beliefs.
The Greek ἥλιος is the inherited word for the Sun, from Proto-Indo-European *sóh₂wl̥, cognate with Latin sol, Sanskrit surya, Old English swegl, Old Norse sól, Welsh haul, etc.
The chariot was the supreme military weapon in Eurasia roughly from 1700 BCE to 500 BCE but was also used for hunting purposes and in sporting contests The invention of the chariot in the steppe - perhaps originally meant as an improved tool for hunting - occurred roughly by 2000 BCE, probably in the area just east of the southern Ural mountains, where the oldest chariots have been unearthed. The Proto-Indo-European of Central Asia is dated to perhaps 5,000 years BCE. Indo-European languages descended from a single tongue. Called Proto-Indo-European, or PIE, it was spoken by a people who lived from roughly 4500 to 2500 B.C., and left no written texts, but they creates fables or animals, gods, and man, recorded later in the Bronze Age.PIE bears out association with Helios and horses.In fact Dingir comes from the Central Asiatic Ting-ri or Tengri, still existing as Tanrı in Turkish.*Seh2ulwith a genitive form *Sh2-en-s The Sun HeliosSolSul/SuilSól, *Sowilō Solntse
We live in a quantum sea of light, radiation and tidal forces conflated with the energy density. Light is the fundamental archetype of reality. It appears when the Ouroboric zero-point bursts open in radiant glory, from the unfathomable primordial darkness, as photonic light and undifferentiated consciousness. As such, it becomes more than a metaphor for human consciousness and primordial awareness – the invisible ground of pure light. This “ground of becoming” may be characterized as a relative vacuum state of consciousness, voided of all manner of mental activity. This mental phenomenon can be accessed through meditative quiescence, the cultivation of nondual contemplative insight. When the conceptual mind stops consciousness beholds itself. Such relative and ultimate vacuum states of consciousness can be correlated with relative and absolute vacuum states of space presented in contemporary physics. Primordial awareness correlates with the minimum fluctuation of the energetic vacuum. Still, the Buddhists caution emptiness, as they use it, does not mean an absolute reality or independent truth.Proto-Indo-European religion has a solar chariot, the sun as traversing the sky in a chariot. In Germanic mythology this is Sol, in Vedic Surya, and in Greek Helios (occasionally referred to as Titan) and (sometimes) as Apollo. Svarog is the Slavic solar deity, represented as a spirit of fire. The Sun and Moon are often seen as the twin children of various deities, but in fact the sun and moon were deified several times and are often found in competing forms within the same language. The usual scheme is that one of these celestial deities is male and the other female, though the exact gender of the Sun or Moon tends to vary among subsequent Indo-European mythologies. The original Indo-European solar deity appears to have been female, a characteristic not only supported by the higher number of sun goddesses in subsequent derivations (feminine Sól, Saule, Sulis, Solntse—not directly attested as a goddess, but feminine in gender--Étaín, Grían, Aimend, Áine and Catha versus masculine Helios, Surya, Savitr, Usil and Sol; Hvare-khshaeta is of neutral gender), but also by vestiges in mythologies with male solar deities (Usil in Etruscan art is depicted occasionally as a goddess, while solar characteristics in Athena and Helen of Troy still remain in Greek mythology). The original Indo-European lunar deity appears to have been masculine, with feminine lunar deities like Selene, Minerva and Luna being a development exclusive to the eastern Mediterranean. Even in these traditions, remnants of male lunar deities, like Menelaus, remain. Analysis of different Indo-European tales indicate the Proto-Indo-Europeans believed there were two progenitors of mankind: *Manu- ("Man"; Indic Manu; Germanic Mannus) and *Yemo- ("Twin"; Indic Yama; Germanic Ymir), his twin brother. Cognates of this set of twins appear as the first mortals, or the first gods to die, sometimes becoming the ancestors of everyone and/or king(s) of the dead.
In all eras ancient man has found ancient fossilized bones of enormous size, often in large pockets, and mistaken these bones for those of massively huge gods, which were actually dinosaur bones. They mistook pitho for Griffins or Dragons, and massive mastodon thighbones for giants. They practiced a polytheistic religion centered on sacrificial rites, probably administered by a priestly caste. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proto-Indo-Europeans
In the seventh century BC, ancient Greeks made contact with Saka-Scythian nomads who prospected for gold in the Gobi Desert. One of the legends that the Greeks gleaned from this contact was of the griffin — a lion-sized, four-legged, winged animal with a "cruel sharp beak" — that ferociously guarded its hoard of gold. (A more cautious account suggested that griffins didn't guard gold but simply lived near it, and carefully protected their young from all intruders.) This Roman mosaic shows a griffin drawn to a trap whose unfortunate bait is a man. Where did this legend come from? Twentieth-century excavations in the Gobi have unearthed Protoceratops and Psittacosaurus skeletons, both beaked dinosaurs, from the same regions where the nomads prospected. It's quite possible that gold seekers found these fossils eroding out of the desert sands and, making astute observations about their skeletal structures, speculated on the appearance of the live animal. Dragons play a great role in Greek mythology. Homer describes the dragons with wings and legs.[
The Eurasian Proto-Indo-Europeans likely lived during the late Neolithic, or roughly the 4th millennium BC. Mainstream scholarship places them in the forest-steppe zone immediately to the north of the western end of the Pontic-Caspian steppe in Eastern Europe. Some archaeologists would extend the time depth of PIE to the middle Neolithic (5500 to 4500 BCE) or even the early Neolithic (7500 to 5500 BCE), and suggest alternative location hypotheses. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helios
By the early second millennium BCE, offshoots of the Proto-Indo-Europeans had reached far and wide across Eurasia, including Anatolia (Hittites), the Aegean (Mycenaean Greece), Western Europe (Corded Ware culture), the edges of Central Asia (Yamna culture), and southern Siberia (Afanasevo culture).
Surya Siddhanta is the first among the traditions or doctrines (siddhanta) in archaeo-astronomy of the Vedic era. other religions and new influences. Mithra, a solar deity, became identified in Babylonia with the Babylonians' own ancient sun god, Shamash; in Greece with Helios, the sun, and the god Apollo; and in the Roman empire with Sol Invictus, the ... From this primordial act, according to the Mithraic belief, sprang life on earth. Helios (/ˈhiːli.ɒs/; Ancient Greek: Ἥλιος Hēlios; Latinized as Helius; Ἠέλιος in Homeric Greek) was the personification of the Sun in Greek mythology. He is the son of the TitanHyperion and the Titaness Theia (according to Hesiod), also known as Euryphaessa (in Homeric Hymn 31) and brother of the goddesses Selene, the moon, and Eos, the dawn. Helios was described as a handsome titan crowned with the shining aureole of the Sun, who drove the chariot of the sun across the sky each day to earth-circling Oceanus and through the world-ocean returned to the East at night. In the Homeric hymn to Helios, Helios is said to drive a golden chariot drawn by steeds (HH 31.14–15); and Pindar speaks of Helios's "fire-darting steeds" (Olympian Ode 7.71). Still later, the horses were given fiery names: Pyrois, Aeos, Aethon, and Phlegon. As time passed, Helios was increasingly identified with the god of light, Apollo. However, in spite of their syncretism, they were also often viewed as two distinct gods/titan (Helios was a Titan, whereas Apollo was an Olympian). The equivalent of Helios in Roman mythology was Sol, specifically Sol Invictus
The great Sky God, Tengri was a dominating deity in the Universe and was believed to be a divine father and ruler. The Earth Goddess was considered to be both a mother and wife to Tengri. She appeared as a force of nature, and was subordinate only to Him. In ancient mythology there was a theory that mortals were the product of the union of Tengri and Earth. In the Orkhon Stone we read: “In the beginning there was a blue sky above, a dark land below, and human sons in-between." The Turks revered the Earth Goddess as a giver of crops and abundance. In the spring, before the beginning of the agricultural season and in the autumn, after the harvest, as a sign of gratitude for the abundance of food and happiness, the ancient Turks and Mongols made a sacrifice to the Earth Goddess. Milk, kumys and tea were offered and pleas made for a fertile land and a rich yield. Tengri(Heaven) rules over destiny of a man, people and states, distribute dates of life, protects from evil spirits and deaths, diseases, enemies, robbers; granted people and castle vital forces, peace and prosperity, military and hunting success.
The following article is based, with permission, on Norm Kisamov's translation from Russian, of chapter III (pp 71-95) of Rafael Bezertinov's book "TENGRIANISM: RELIGION OF TURKS AND MONGOLS", Naberezhnye Chelny, 2000. Original versions can be found at turkicworld.org and hunmagyar.org
Tengri, the Sky God
The ancient Turks believed that 17 Deities ruled the Universe, whilst the Mongols counted 99. From ancient and medieval sources (Turkish, Mongolian, Chinese, Byzantine, Arab and Persian) we learn that in both the Turkic and Mongolian Pantheons superiority belonged to Tengri. The various Turkic peoples had similar names for the Sky God: Tatar - Tengri; Altai - Tengri; Turks - Tanri; Khakases - Tigir; Chuvash - Tura; Yakuts - Tangara; Karachai-Balkars - Teyri; Kumyks - Tengiri, Mongols - Tengeri. The Turks and Mongols believed that all existence in the Universe was attributed to Tengri, the Sky God. It was Tengri who ruled the fate of entire nations and their rulers, the Khagans. The Orkhon Stone contains the following inscription: "All human sons are born to die in time, as determined by Tengri." Tengri was worshipped by lifting one’s hands upwards and bowing. Prayers to Tengri were only for health and assistance in good deeds. Tengri later received a Persian name (Khodai) and missionaries attempted to identify him with the Christian God or the Islamic Allah, in order to win converts. However, the great Sky God, Tengri became neither God, nor Allah.
Yer (Earth-Spirit) and Tengri (Sky-Spirit) existed in harmony and complemented each other. The Earth gave man a material shell, but his soul (Kut) was given at birth by Tengri who took it back after death. There is an element of dualism here, but Tengri reinged supreme. It is known from Chinese sources that the ancient Turks believed that Tengri determined man’s longevity. Tengri justly rewarded and punished. Expressions such: ‘Tengri jarlykasyn’ (may Tengri reward you), ‘Kuk sukkan’ (damned by the Sky) and ‘Kuk sugar’ (the sky will damn) are heard even today. Tengri gave the Khagans (Khans) wisdom and authority. We read on the monument honouring Bilge-Khagan: "After the death of my father, at the will of Turkic Tengri and sacred Turkic Yer-Sub (Earth-Water), I became Khan... Tengri who gives the states (to Khans), made me Khagan, it should be known, so that the name and glory of the Turkish people would not disappear." In the monument honouring Kul-Tegin, we read: "Tengri, who rules my father, Ilterish-Khagan, and my mother, Ilbilgya-Katun, from above, ennobled them... As Tengri gave them strength, the army of Khagan, my father, was like a wolf and his enemies like sheep."1 On the 8-9th century stone carvings, found on the banks of the Orkhon and Tola rivers, in Altai and in Tuva, the Turkic Khans-Batyrs (mighty Heroes) left to their descendants these words: "… For the Turkic people I did not sleep nights and days, did not rest... Let not the Turkic people vanish! Let not the name and glory of the Turkic people perish!"
After a Khagan ascended to the throne, he was referred to as a son of Tengri, for it was Tengri who had given the Khagan to his people and it was He that punished those who turned against their ruler, "... instructing the Khagan, who attends to state and military affairs."2 A man became Khagan, and lived under Tengri's protection only for as long as he himself lived by Tengri's laws. During the election of a Khagan, the Beks felt that Tengri Himself had determined the outcome. A legitimate Khan was therefore looked upon as "Tengri-like... begotten by Tengri... a wise Turkic Khagan". A Khagan (Khan) should be brave, clever, honourable, vigorous, fair, and have the virtues of a Bozkurt (wolf). With these qualities, a Khagan could unify Turkic tribes into a single nation. Ancient Turkic inscriptions refer to punishments by Tengri of individuals and tribes. Oath breakers were subject to heavy punishment, as was disobedience to the Khagan. However, Tengri could also punish the Khagan. Chinese chronicles describe a case where one Khagan decided not to keep his promise to give his daughter as a wife to the emperor of the Northern Chow dynasty. He later kept his original oath out of fear of punishment. If the Khagan ruled improperly, it was said that it was Tengri who caused him to lose his authority, via the will of the people. Divine punishment followed transgression during one's lifetime and Tengri's power over man ended after his death.
Fire was a grandson of Tengri and the Sun. His brother was Lightning. The Turks associated Fire with birth, growth, development, and life in general. N. Katanov states, "In the perception of the Tatars, the spirit of Fire grows and warms beings. As soon as the spirit of Fire departs from the being, it dies. The body unites with the land, and the soul joins the multitudes of spirits, soaring above the Earth." A red cow, red bull, or rooster represented Fire. In other representations, Fire was Ut-Ana (Mother Fire). Ut-Ana was believed to be the mother of mankind. When Fire whistled in the hearth, they bowed to the flame and invocated: "Fire, you are our Mother with 30 teeth, you are our mother-in-law with 40 teeth." Fire was deemed to be like the Sun (Heavenly Fire) and the hearth in the centre of a yurt was purposely made round. Warmth, emanated from both Sun and Fire, as did light and colour. Sun and Fire were linked to Woman, who bore and guarded the descendants. The Hearth was protected and kept clean, a careless attitude could result in the Fire God becoming angry and leaving the yurt. Fire was associated with the clan, but each family also maintained a family Fire, which was united with that of other families. However, borrowing Fire from neighbours was considered impious.
Koyash, the Sun God
The Sun was the son of Tengri and the Earth Goddess. Therefore, He circled between the two. The Turks and Mongols honoured the power and vital force of the Sun God. Huns, leaving their villages in the morning, welcomed the rising sun and bowed towards Him. Turks would turn towards the sunrise when praying. They worshipped the Sun because Tengri supervised the creation of the world by the Sun’s rays, which are but strings linking the spirits of plants to the Sun. Solar rays were considered a medium for transmitting the life force sent by Tengri to the infant. A vivid example is the legend of the birth of An-Lushan by a Shamaness, from Ashide, a noble Turkic clan. He became famous for rebelling against the Tan dynasty of imperial China. At his conception it was said that a ray of light penetrated the yurt. “The famous pra-mother of the Mongols, Alan-Goa, who belonged to the clan of Cengiz-Khan, conceived from a ray that penetrated the yurt through a smoke hole.”11 The Turks associated the Sun’s path in the sky with the flight of a fiery bird or a winged horse. Winged horses as symbols of the Sun were widely used in the cosmological myths of Turkic peoples. In addition to horses and birds, other animals (rams, deer, bulls) were also connected with the Sun. Large numbers of domestic artifacts decorated with solar symbols are found throughout Eurasia and testify to the wide distribution of the Sun cult amongst the Turks. Such images are seen in large numbers on ceramic vessels and female earrings. http://drakenberg.weebly.com/tengri1.html
We live in a quantum sea of light, radiation and tidal forces conflated with the energy density. Light is the fundamental archetype of reality. It appears when the Ouroboric zero-point bursts open in radiant glory, from the unfathomable primordial darkness, as photonic light and undifferentiated consciousness. As such, it becomes more than a metaphor for human consciousness and primordial awareness – the invisible ground of pure light. We live in a quantum sea of light, radiation and tidal forces conflated with the energy density. Light is the fundamental archetype of reality. It appears when the Ouroboric zero-point bursts open in radiant glory, from the unfathomable primordial darkness, as photonic light and undifferentiated consciousness. As such, it becomes more than a metaphor for human consciousness and primordial awareness – the invisible ground of pure light.
he oldest form of the name is recorded in Chinese annals from the 4th century BC, describing the beliefs of the Xiongnu. It takes the form 撑犁/Cheng-li, which is hypothesized to be a Chinese transcription of Tängri. (The Proto-Turkic form of the word has been reconstructed as *Teŋri or *Taŋrɨ.) Alternatively, a reconstructed Altaic etymology from *T`aŋgiri ("oath" or "god") would emphasize the god's divinity rather than his domain over the sky.
Tengri was the national god of the Göktürks, described as the "god of the Turks" (Türük Tängrisi). The Göktürk khans based their power on a mandate from Tengri. These rulers were generally accepted as the sons of Tengri who represented him on Earth. They wore titles such as tengrikut, kutluġ or kutalmysh, based on the belief that they attained the kut, the mighty spirit granted to these rulers by Tengri. Tengri was the chief deity worshipped by the ruling class of the Central Asian steppe peoples in 6th to 9th centuries (Turkic peoples, Mongols and Hungarians). It lost its importance when the Uighuric kagans proclaimed Manichaeism the state religion in the 8th century. The worship of Tengri was brought into Eastern Europe by the Huns and early Bulgars. Tengri is considered to be the chief god who created all things. In addition to this celestial god, they also had minor divinities (Alps) that served the purposes of Tengri. As Gök Tanrı, he was the father of the sun (Koyash) and moon (Ay Tanrı) and also Umay, Erlik, and sometimes Ülgen. MythologyTengri was the main god of the Turkic pantheon, controlling the celestial sphere. Tengri is considered to be strikingly similar to the Indo-European sky god, *Dyeus, and the structure of the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European religion is closer to that of the early Turks than to the religion of any people of Near Eastern or Mediterranean antiquity. The most important contemporary testimony of Tengri worship is found in the Old TurkicOrkhon inscriptions, dated to the early 8th century. Written in the so-called Orkhon script, these inscriptions record an account of the mythological origins of the Turks. The inscription dedicated to Kul Tigin includes the passages (in the translation provided by the Language Committee of Ministry of Culture and Information of the Republic of Kazakhstan): "When the blue sky [Tengri] above and the brown earth below were created, between them a human being was created. Over the human beings, my ancestors Bumin Kagan and Istemi Kagan ruled. They ruled people by Turkish laws, they led them and succeeded" (face 1, line 1); "Tengri creates death. Human beings have all been created in order to die" (face 2, line 9); "You passed away (lit.: 'went flying') until Tengri gives you life again" (face 2, line 14). In Turkic mythology, Tengri is a pure, white goose that flies constantly over an endless expanse of water, which represents time. Beneath this water, Ak Ana ("White Mother") calls out to him saying "Create". To overcome his loneliness, Tengri creates Er Kishi, who is not as pure or as white as Tengri and together they set up the world. Er Kishi becomes a demonic character and strives to mislead people and draw them into its darkness. Tengri assumes the name Tengri Ülgen and withdraws into Heaven from which he tries to provide people with guidance through sacred animals that he sends among them. The Ak Tengris occupy the fifth level of Heaven. Shaman priests who want to reach Tengri Ülgen never get further than this level, where they convey their wishes to the divine guides. Returns to earth or to the human level take place in a goose-shaped vessel. According to Mahmud Kashgari, Tengri was known to make plants grow and the lightning flash. Turks used the adjective tengri which means "heavenly, divine", to label everything that seemed grandiose, such as a tree or a mountain, and they stooped to such entities. Tengri worship by "infidels" was viewed negatively by Kashgari. The non-Muslim Turks worship of Tengri was mocked and insulted by the Muslim Turk Mahmud al-Kashgari, who wrote a verse referring to them - The Infidels - May God destroy them! Kashgari claimed that the Prophet assisted in a miraculous event where 700,000 Yabāqu infidels were defeated by 40,000 Muslims led by Arslān Tegīn claiming that fires shot sparks from gates located on a green mountain towards the Yabāqu. The Yabaqu were a Turkic people.
in the Tengri belief system. After all, Tengri is the creator of the universe, as preserved for all creatures.
Koyash (Tatar: Кояш or Qoyaş, Bashkort: Ҡояш, Uzbek: Quyosh, Uyghur: قۇياش, Turkish: Kuyaş) is the god of sun in Turkic mythology. Gök Tanrı created the earth with rays of sun light, thus, Koyash took part in the creation of earth. Solar rays are also considered to be "strings" between the sun and the spirits of plants, animals and humans. Turks who worship Koyash turn towards the sunrise when praying. Koyash is the son of Gok Tengri "Sky God" (Tenger means sky in Mongolian) and the Earth Goddess. The power and vital force of the Sun God, making it a priority to bow to him each morning as he rises. Solar rays are strings that link the spirits of plants to heaven, and considered a medium for transmitting Tengri into infants. Koyash is often depicted as a fiery bird or a winged horse. These images are often used to adorn things such as ceramic pots and earrings in ancient times. The sun god Koyash can make "solar strands" from his hands capable of ensnaring and burning his victims. To the Altai people, the sun represented light, warmth, and growth. This made the sun deity very important, as the sun was seen as the ruler of all that he created. Then he is portrayed as a warrior.
The Sun (also Koyash) was the son of Gök-Tengri (Sky God) and the Toprak Ana (Earth Goddess). The Turkish people and Mongols honoured the power and vital force of the Sun God. Reportedly the Huns, leaving their villages in the morning, welcomed the rising sun and bowed towards him. Altai people would turn towards the sunrise when praying. They worshipped the Sun because Gok-Tengri supervised the creation of the world by the Sun’s rays, which are but strings linking the spirits of plants to the Sun. Likewise solar rays were considered a medium for transmitting the life force sent by Tengri to the infant. A vivid example is the legend of the birth of An-Lushan by a Shamaness. At his conception it was said that a ray of light penetrated the yurt. Alan-Goa, the mother of the Mongols, conceived from a ray that penetrated the yurt through a smoke hole. The Turkish people associated the Sun’s path in the sky with the flight of a fire-bird or a winged horse. Flying (winged) horses as symbols of the Sun were widely used in the cosmological myths of Turkish peoples. And other animals (rams, deer, bulls) were also connected with the Sun.
readers.SUN IS ALSO FIRE (Kuyas ham Alov) is one such work of supposed fiction that contains accurate historical information, quotations from key historical monuments of Central Asia, and which bears several messages relevant to the contemporary population. SUN IS ALSO FIRE is a "short story" by Alisher Ibadin, printed in the periodical Gulistan (published in the Uzbek SSR), in its issue No. 9, 1980. Examination of current Soviet textbooks suggests that the works implicitly referenced (identified below) in this "short story" are not generally available or taught in Soviet schools. In this effort, Ibadin is presenting himself as a conduit, a bridge to the real past. In verbalizing the thoughts of the collective ancestry, he is taking a great personal risk -- perhaps, like the central figure of the "tale," pouring (symbolic) naphtha on himself. The main theme of SUN IS ALSO FIRE reflects the messages of both the sources and the historical events to which Ibadin alludes -- a struggle for independence against an invading alien, preservation of the culture of one's ancestors and the self sacrifice required for the task. Along the way, purification, by fire, is woven into the main flow, an important historical motif. One of the most powerful messages of SUN IS ALSO FIRE is represented by the epigram with which Ibadin begins: "If the sky above did not collapse, and if the earth below did not give way, O Turkish people, who would be able to destroy your state and institutions? These words come from the Orkhon-Yenisei tablets inscribed in the first third of the 8th century. The tablets are the earliest known surviving written monuments of the Turks in their own language. They recount the fall of a great Central Asian Turk empire in the 7th century and the leaders who rebuilt it. It is not only the story of national reconstruction after subjugation (in this case, by the Chinese) and thus a message of confidence, but contains the sobering lesson that the loss of the earlier empire was the fault of the Turks themselves because they forsook the ancestral values. It is from that passage that Ibadin took this admonition.
HELIOS (Helius) was the Titan god of the sun, a guardian of oaths, and the god of sight. He dwelt in a golden palace in the River Okeanos (Oceanus) at the far ends of the earth from which he emerged each dawn, crowned with the aureole of the sun, driving a chariot drawn by four winged steeds. When he reached the the land of the Hesperides in the far West he descended into a golden cup which bore him through the northern streams of Okeanos back to his rising place in the East. Once his son Phaethon tried to drive the chariot of the sun, but he lost control and set the earth ablaze. Zeus struck the boy down with a thunderbolt. Helios was depicted as a handsome, usually beardless, man clothed in purple robes and crowned with the shining aureole of the sun. His sun-chariot was drawn by four, sometimes winged, steeds. Helios was identified with several other gods of fire and light such as Hephaistos (Hephaestus) and light-bringing Phoibos Apollon (Phoebus Apollo).
Scheme of Indo-European migrations from ca. 4000 to 1000 BCE according to the Kurgan hypothesis. The magenta area corresponds to the assumed Urheimat (Samara culture, Sredny Stog culture). The red area corresponds to the area which may have been settled by Indo-European-speaking peoples up to ca. 2500 BCE; the orange area to 1000 BCE
The Sun and the Sun-god Helios https://www.academia.edu/13220011/Gaia_Helios_Selene_and_Ouranos_the_three_principal_celestial_bodies_and_the_sky_in_the_ancient_Greek_cosmogony From prehistoric times, humans admired the starry night sky, with its thou-sands of naked-eye stars twinkling on its vault. But their joy was greatest atdawn, "the rosy-ﬁngered Eos" (Hesiod, 2006, Works and Days , 609), whenthe diﬀuse sunlight gradually prevailed over the darkness of the fearful night.They naturally worshipped the light-giving Sun, since they realized that ev-erything on earth owed its existence and life to the inﬂuence of its rays.According to archaeologist Chr. G. Doumas: "The word ’als’ in Homer means the sea when observed from the land. The presence of this root in tablets of Linear B writings as component of other words indicates a long-standing use, during which it evolved into a versatile noun of the third declension that easily makes compounds with other roots... the fact that with the original root so many and various needs of the Greek language, e.g. alios / helios [= sun],shows both the close relationship of the aegean society with the sea and the strong inﬂuence of the liquid element upon the history and the culture of that age." (Doumas, 2010, The ancient monuments of the names , p. 16). "Indeed, from ’als’ (genitive form: alos) came the adjective ’alios’, which,even though it is recognized as the doric type of ’helios’ = sun, it essential-ly means the one that is related to the sea... The depiction of the Sun on the proto-Cycladic pan-shaped vessels of the 3rd millenium BC is probably an indication of the importance assigned to it by the Cycladians of that period.The islanders of the Aegean Sea and the inhabitants of the eastern shores of the Greek peninsula see every morning the Sun rising from the sea" (Doumas,2008, The aligenes Aegean Sun, p.15), as described in the ﬁrst verses of Rhap-sody iii of the Odyssey: "When the Sun, leaving the lake, ascended towards the all-copper sky to shine on both immortals and the mortal people of the life-giving earth...". The Sun is the ’radiating one’, the ’ﬁery one’ and as such it symbolized thecelestial representation of the universal father, being essentially the represen-tative of God’s spirit (Demetrakos, 1964, vol. 7, p. 3250). The Sun’s appear-ance in the morning, its culmination at noon and its majestic disappearancefor the night (or during the eclipses) inﬂuenced much human thought. Dark-ness falling every evening after sunset ﬁlled the soul of the primitive humanwith stressful questions. With time, the savants of the society assigned to
Gaia, Helios, Selene and Ouranos 99 the Sun supernatural divine properties, since as a god ’he’ could appear ordisappear at will, both daily and during the much more rare eclipses.All ancient people worshipped the light- and life-giving Sun. The Sun wasSamas of the Assurians, Bel of the Semites, Bel-Marduk of the Babylonians, Elor Outou of the Sumerians, Baal of the Phoenicians and Chananeans, Molochof the Ammonites, Chimoch of the Moabites, Ammun-Ra of the Egyptians,Surya of the Indians, Mithra of the Persians, Indi of the Inka, Tonatiuch of the Aztecs, Sol of the Romans, Swarog or Yarila of Slavic tribes, Belenos of the Celts, Helios and Phoebos-Apollo (the symbol of sunlight) of the Greeks.The worship of the Sun god was universal and prevalent, since for ancienthumans the Sun was the source of life, light and warmth, a guarantee of thecelestial order of the hours of the day and the seasons of the year, a creativeforce for nature and, more mundanely, an aid for orientation. Besides, theSophoclean phrase "everybody adores the rotating solar orb" (Achilles Tatius,1917, frag. 672 Nauk2), is true for all ages (Sophocles, 1892, Trachiniae , 738,2). 7. The Sun-Helios in Greek mythology In Homer’s Iliad and Odyssey (ca 8th century BC) the external aspect of the bright appearance of the Sun is especially stressed along with the notionsassociated with sunrise and sunset. According to Hesiod, the Sun-god, Helios,was the son of Titans Hyperion and Theia ( Theog ., 371-372), or of Hyperionand Euryphaessa ( Homeric Hymn to Helios 31, 2), while his sisters wereSelene (the Moon goddess) and Eos (the personiﬁcation of dawn). Pindarcelebrates Theia as the mother of Helios in his 5th Isthmian Ode (1997): "Mother of the Sun, Theia of many names, for your sake men honor gold as more powerful than anything else; and through the value you bestow on them, o queen, ships contending on..." As Titans, Theia and Hyperion (= he who hovers above earth) belong tothe same generation as Cronus; all of them were children of Gaia and Uranus(Patsi-Garin, 1969).Homer, calling Helios ’Hyperionides’ ( Odyssey xii 176), stresses his con-crete bond with life, as since their birth, humans behold the solar ’augeae’(daybreaks): they live "under the stars of the sky and the light of the Sun" ( Iliad IV 45), rejoicing when they see "the bright light of the Sun" ( Iliad V120). Eventually, when a person dies "he abandons the light of the Sun" ( Iliad XIX 2).The Sun for Homer is the god who "sees everything and hears every-thing" ( Iliad III 277). This characteristic of Helios is stressed by the a
Gaia, Helios, Selene and Ouranos 101 "Eous; by him the sky is turned. Aethiops, as if ﬂaming, parches the grain.These trace-horses are male. The female are yoke-bearers: Bronte, whom we call Thunder, Sterope, whom we call Lightning" These equine names allude to the power of the God, the succession of thecelestial phenomena and the maturing of the fruits. Other authors report othernames for the Sun’s horses: Lampon, Aethops, Aethon and Flegon (Gelling& Davidson, 1969, p. 14+; Glob 1974, pp. 99-103, and Green 1991, pp. 64-66,p. 114+). Every evening, Helios completed his journey and then rested in theWest, in the land of Hesperides.The notion of the ’ﬂaming’ or ’ﬁery’ nature of Helios is very commonamong the Greek tragic poets: "baked by the ﬁre of the sun" (Aeschylus,1983, Prometheus Bound 22), "High o’er the earth, at whose ethereal ﬁre..." (Euripides: Ion 34), "Hot ﬂame of the King" (Euripides, 1996, Phaethon 776).Euripides describes sunrise as follows: "Now ﬂames this radiant chariot of the sun / high o’er the earth, at whose ethereal ﬁre / the stars into the sacred night retreat" (Euripides, 2004, Ion 82-84). This description has often beencompared with a depiction of Helios on a Greek vase of the 5th century BCthat is kept in the British Museum; there, Helios is depicted with a ray-surrounded head, riding a winged four-horse chariot, rising from the sea, inwhich child-like apparitions swim, denoting the stars that go to hide. Fig.2. At the period of Emperor August (Ink drawing: The rise of the Sun with his 4-horsechariot. The vanishing stars of the night are depicted as children sinking in the sea (Greekvase, 435 BC - British Museum). The Sun, completing his daily (diurnal) course on the celestial vault, restedevery night on a golden bed made by the hammer of the god Hephaestos(Vulcan), in order to shine again the following day over the world.Helios had many sons and daughters. With Oceanid Perseis they had threechildren: Circe, Passiphae and Ae¨etes (Apollonius, 1962, Argonautica 3, 1, 2and Homer: Odyssey XII 3). Circe was famous for her magical powers and forher love for Ulysses ( Theogony , 1914, 957). Passiphae, wife of king Minos of Crete, is identiﬁed with the Moon and considered the primeval deity of light,as her name states (passiphaessa = apparent to all). It was due to Passiphae
102 E. Theodossiou et al. that the worship of Helios was widely practiced in Crete, where he was adoredunder the form of a bull (Bekker, 1814-1821, Anecd. Gr . 344, 10). The mythof Passiphae falling in love with a bull (the zodiacal constellation Taurus =the Bull) reﬂects a very ancient tradition, according to which the bull-shapedsun-god and the cow-shaped moon-goddess were united with a holy wedding.In another myth, Ae¨etes was king of Aea, who refused to give the GoldenFleece (a symbol of sunlight) to Jason and the Argonauts.Helios had two other daughters, Phaethusa and Lampetie, and a son,Phaethon, with Clymene.. Once, Phaethon got permission from his fatherto cross the sky with his chariot. However, when Phaethon saw the hugeconstellation Scorpius (the scorpion) he became freightened and lost controlof his father’s chariot. Its horses bolted and the chariot started to go up anddown, threatening the Earth with destruction. Then Zeus saved the world bykilling Phaethon with one of his thunderbolts. Phaethon’s body fell on thebank of the river Eridanus. His sisters, the Heliads, who mourned him, weretransformed into poplars, the holy trees of the god Helios, and their tearsbecame amber
Gaia, Helios, Selene and Ouranos 103 ’Phaethon’ was also a name given to of Helios himself because of its ra-diant light ( Iliad XI 730, Odyssey v 479, xi 15, Homeric Hymn 31.2). In his Theogony (1914), Hesiod writes of Phaethon and Hyperion as ’substances’ of god Helios ( Theog . 987 and Nagy, 1990, p. 235). Additionally, Phaethon ismentioned by both Nonnus (1940, Dionysiaka 38.167) and Ovid (1857, Meta-morph . 2007, 1.747-79: Phaethon’s parentage, struggle with Epaphos and 2.42: Phaethon and his father ).Helios, according to Greek mythology, also had numerous other aﬀairswith other women; subsequently, he had many other sons and daughters,collectively known in ancient Greek literature as Heliades.A famous center of Helios worship was Rhodes; as Pindar (1997) reports( Olymp. Ode 7, 69), the whole island belonged to him. The famous Colossuswas a giant statue of Helios (this statue was one of the ’seven wonders’ of theancient world), an artwork by Rhodian sculptor Chares from Lindos (Pliny,1971, Historia Naturalis 34.63), a student of Lysippus (3rd cent. BC). Everyfour years a Sun festival was celebrated on the island, called Ali(ei)a or Helieia(Nilsson, 1906, p. 427), during which they oﬀered to Helios a four-horse chariotthrown into the sea. Helios stayed in Rhodes with Nymph Rhodos, a daughterof Aphrodite, and together they had seven sons, named: Ochimos, Cercaphus,Actis, Macar, Candalus, Triopes and Tenages, and their wisdom is exalted byPindar (1997, Olymp. Ode 7, 72-75).In Greek art the personiﬁcation of the sun is often depicted as a youngman bearing a radiant wreath and a tunic, standing upon a four-horse chariot,as on the metope of the Hellenistic temple of goddess Athena in Ilion (Troy).Of more astronomical interest is a statue of Helios in the Vatican. He isdepicted as a young man bearing a radiant wreath, and has an extra feature:a wide belt with the symbols of the zodiac.Moreover, there is the tradition, mentioned among others by Homer ( Odyssey xii 127), that in Trinacria island (Sicily),Helios had seven herds of cattle andseven herds of sheep, each having ﬁfty animals. They grazed steadily everyday, never getting more or less. According to the explanation given by Aris-totle, the lunar year consisted of 50 weeks, each having 7 days and 7 nights;therefore the 50 times 7 cattle and the 50 times 7 sheep were denoting the 350days and 350 nights, respectively, which make the lunar year used by ancientGreeks according to the original calculations (Theodossiou & Danezis, 1995,p. 315).The worship of the Sun-god was universal, while very ancient practicesoriginating in it, such as the orientation of temples of several religions towardsthe East, were kept until our days in the conscience of people.
LIGHT TO LIGHT OF THE CONSCIOUSNESS
Vincenzo Ampolo, Lecce
Light from Light
The ancient peoples lived with the anguish that sunlight would not recur in the day next, because everything that happened in nature was given to them by a will divine.
The light of the sun or moon, depending on the ancient peoples and cultures, thus became, in myth, a hero who fought to defeat monsters and darkness that would otherwise overwhelmed humans.
By the Egyptians to the Babylonians, from the Celts to the Greeks, until the cult of the "unconquered sun" of the Romans, the myth light (well rooted in popular culture, first the East and then West) is recovered as symbol central, for represent religious and cultural forms very Similar and different at the same time, however, such by defining the peculiar characteristics of deities in the different religions.
The Catholic faith, like the Buddhist, Jewish, Muslim, Protestant or Orthodox is appropriated the symbolism of light and puts the as a clear image of the splendor of their faith. Light is narrated in Genesis as the first act divine "God said: Let there be light and there was light. God saw that the light was good: and God divided the light from the darkness and called the light day and the darkness night. "For primitive Christianity of Greek-culture Roman He identified the symbolism of light with Christ himself, who assumed the role of ancient solar deities. In the Gospels we read: "Our God will from meeting, as light that rises; It will shine in the darkness for those who live in the shadow of death. "(Luke 1, 78). In the Gospels of John, Matthew and Isaiah It reiterates the solar aspect and shining of Christ which, like the rising sun announcing the dawn of resurrection. The Scriptures and the patristic literature they inspired, as the liturgical hymns handed down to this day, are full of expressions relating to the identification of God / Jesus with the Light, understood over time more and more like symbol of truth and life that illuminates and reveals save humans from the darkness of evil. The light of Christ is understood, very often, as a set of sunlight and moonlight and Also transcendence of both of them. We like to remember in this regard the sky starry, in which shone the star of Bethlehem, guide the Magi, priests, wise men and the sorcerers the same time. The name of one of the three Magi, Melki-Or (Hebrew for "King of Light") refers significantly to the ancient cult of our study. If, finally, the light substances are made that the mystics have imagined and contemplated, the mystical participation of believers takes place through themselves become a part of a great light, a lighting process Collective activated by the Divine Spirit.
Melchior = king of light the dragon of Ur darkness is probably a mistrans of hebrew or' 'light' In Mandaean manuscripts and legends, however, the word Nasurai is generally ... and dwelt in the call of the Life and in the strength of the high King of Light.' ..... According to one account, the melki measured the existence of the world into ... The moon (Sin) appears to be regarded as a sinister influence. The informant quoted above says: 'The face of Sin, the Moon, is like a cat, animal-like and black, whilst the face of Shamish is like a wheel of light' (he drew a swastika). 'With Sin in the moon-ship is the King of Darkness also. He (Melka d Hshukha) pulls men towards the earthly and gross, towards the dark and evil. He does this because he must, though he was created by and serves God, for there must be darkness and light and day and night. He is ordered to this by the Lord of Greatness, who has a myriad names and created all beings, visible and invisible, of the created worlds. The light-melki in the moon prevent Sin and the King of Darkness from bemusing the children of men. Under the influence of those two, men do deeds of madness and shame that they would not wish to perform by day; and without the counteracting influence of the ten, men's moral sense would disappear. But Melka d Hshukha cannot harm a man who rules himself and has a firm faith. A man must not doubt: his faith and his purity must be strong, for then he sees melki and can communicate with Shamish. He must not say 'I fear there are not', he must say, 'There are!'. If a man says, 'There is no God, no spirits', he is entirely in the power of the King of Darkness and it is harmful even to sit with such a one.'
2 - The primitive religion of the light 1 In time to which you recall Rigveda , the the oldest parts of the hymns and songs collected in Veda , Handed down orally for many generations, religion was a pure worship of nature. They worshiped the sky, the sun, lightning, fire, the rain and it was feared drought, night, the darkness and what was hiding in it. Countless divinity good or evil They presided over the affairs of men and the fight incessant between the creation and destruction of any vital element. The coupons were called Deva, Namely Clear, the shining ones; malignant were called Asura, That the Dark. However, in the religion of the light there were differentiations related to the attributes of the various light sources. The illuminating (Savitar), the resplendent (Pusan), Burning (Tejas), The moon (Rudra), The wriggling (Indra), The fiery (Agni), just for name a few among many. In this theater of nature the storm was fight fought by Indra, The sky god Flaking of lightning, very similar to Zeus the Greeks, against Vritra, The god that envelops the sky in darkness and in the form of a serpent, keeps captive the mountain waters. At Indra, also considered slayer of demons, hero of the battles, hefty bull, sovereign Universal, King of solid and liquid things, celebrated as the one who consolidated the mountains and placed the boundary of the atmosphere and supported the sky, he addressed mainly the adoration of the faithful. Many sacred hymns collected in Rigveda sing his praises: I want to make public Indra's business, first that lightning reinforced accomplished: he hit the snake, he has paved the way for waters, has split the belly of the mountains. He hits the snake lying on mountain ... As bellowing cows, the waters They are hasty, fell straight to the sea ...When Indra and the serpent fought, the dispenser of treasures brought the victory for present and for the times to come. The Aurora hymns that, originally, it is the female mythical, they are, in the liturgy of light, far long the most poetic. In sacrifice morning Yes celebrates, with devotion, the mystery of Aurora, the light of a new day. The light, the spending of the lights, it's coming. The bright sign, spending, was born. Depending Savitar that face out so as to fulfill the His law, the night gives way to the Aurora ...Shining, presenter of young forces, it has shone, brilliant; It opened the doors for us; setting in motion the mobile world, it has found wealth for us. The aurora has awakened all creatures. - Why the one who He was lying down paths - the benefactor! – a other (day) to the richness, both for enjoy it, is to look for, because those who see see little far away, the dawn has woke up all the creatures ... Gone are the mortals who have seen the ancient shine aurora. Now it is to us that you show. And are already they that there will see in times future ... Get up! The breath of life came to us. The darkness is gone. Comes the light. Has left green light to the sun perch'esso paths. We arrived at the moment when life is Prolonged!
The sacred cosmology and the union of opposites 2
The sacrificial offering of Soma, as we is reported by the ancient texts, it was intended to cheer the gods of light, making them propitious the prayers and at the same time to give them the force necessary for the fulfillment of their serious task, which consisted in supporting a constant struggle with the powers of evil of darkness. The Sacrifice of the pack It establishes, a reconciliation and a junction between the Powers in conflict. The deities of Light and those of Darkness They find a way to coexist, to harmonize. The Moon becomes food of the Sun, that the swallows overnight where cohabit (amavasja) As a happy couple. We are talking about an alchemical marriage sacred (hierosgamos) that announces the completion of the process in conjunction of the two supreme planets, their" honeymoon "It could be said, alluding to one of the ritual components. "And the mysterium coniunctionis the Sun and Moon, the King and Queen, is the realization of the coincidence of opposites , The Rebis, the Divine Androgynous. " When the priest officiating the sacrifice, sheds the residue of Soma in the fire, spreads when himself and what he is: emptying his human nature becomes God. When the end of the rite becomes whether Man himself is a "different", having killed its Dragon, come to the borders of the world when Heaven and Earth, the Moon and the Sun embrace. Here is that the conjunction of opposites He achieves in this ritual, which is lost in the night of time and that also represents a form primal therapy, a "magical" way of reach the "holy joy of the heart", in that everlasting search Harmony that distinguishes human beings. From fragmentation to unity "A woman arrives in the central room of a large building whose walls are all covered with mirrors which reflect the center of the room a radiant light " Silvia in Montefoschi be being partial visions of us lead our lives, including the darkness of the infernal regions and the light of consciousness. The analytical path has to deal with shadows of our nightmares before recovering toward the light. The experience of their unity needs a distancing from experience and lived partial with the Which the individual Yes era identified in time. Self there theosophy Islamic, second how much He refers H. Corbin 3, He tells of a world called Land of Light: Mundus Imaginalis, Suspended between pure substances and intelligible bodily substances, epiphanies of theater and the performing visions that arise in the analytical path, well as the psychoanalyst Silvia Montefoschi in his book be being , Performs an analysis charming of this process analytical, saying that being in the know is It evolves as an individual and as a species. "And 'in fact the experience of fragmentation It forces the human subject, who wishes to save as presence, to make the effort to concentrate, in the highest point of view that he has now reached, and in a new vision unitary of himself, the disparate images of in which it sees itself fragmented. " 4 The confrontation in the hall of mirrors, of which mentions the dream quoted by the author, and for other verses extensively addressed in previous text by Dario V. Caggia The Golden Tree 5 , it's a stage, painful but necessary, on the way women's self-realization, which allows However, to grasp the unity of his being, beyond fragmentation of masks and roles. analytical experience, says the author, "...the destiny man current it seems coincide with one of the "Mystes" the initiate of the ancient esoteric doctrines, as if, by inheriting from them the mission eschatological and assuming the task of continue it, he arrives finally to take her fulfillment. " 6 . The thought of finally Montefoschi promises an evolutionary leap that appears in dreams It is evident; the same dreams "... Where you He says there is no longer the sun to illuminate the earth, and which is instead the earth to radiate its light; where it says that humans, not being more illuminated from the outside, but from their inside, they lose the contrasts produced by shadows and become transparent; and where you can still says that in place of the shadow that the man projected on land remains the Contorn